Дусенко Мария Борисовна
Воспитатель, МКОУ С(К)ШИ №37, г. Новосибирск
Ссылка на статью, при указании в списке литературы (по ГОСТ Р 7.0.5–2008):
Dusenko M. Review of Studies on Problems of Teaching Children with Hearing Impairment (Дусенко М.Б. Обзор исследований по проблемам обучения детей с нарушением слуха) // Совушка. 2019. N2 (16). URL: https://kssovushka.ru/zhurnal/16/ (дата обращения: 13.11.2019).
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Children hearing disorders are sensory disorders (L.O. Badalyan, L.T.Zhurba, N.S. Zhukova, E.M. Mastyukova, N.P. Shabalov, E.L. Frucht, and others). N.S. Zhukova, L.T. Zhurba, E.M. Mastyukova, A.G. Moskovkina and others write that sensory development, as well as the development of children's ideas about the external properties of objects is difficult and delayed when there are sensory disorders, including hearing impairment. Violated the main way of sensory education – the organization of objective actions that require consideration of the properties and qualities of objects [1, 2]. It becomes impossible to create conditions for a gradual transition from taking into account the properties of objects to visual comparison using external samples.
N.S. Zhukova, E.M. Mastyukova, A.G. Moskovkina note that children with a sensory deficit, the development of the subject perception and difficult to form objective actions. Child with sensory defect develops in conditions of sensory and motor deprivation, it is characterized by a delay in the formation of the gnostic functions, insufficiency of auditory gnosis, is manifested unformatted phonemic perception, which delays formation of understanding of speech, sound production and in the future writing skills. Most children who have a sensory defect, the formation of spatial representations is significantly disrupted (E.M. Mastyukova,) [3, 4].
Many children have a thin differentiated finger movements that delay development subject-practical activity. By the three months leading role in the mental development of the child begins to play aural perception. In a healthy child, the reaction to sound stimulus with the possibility of localizing sound in space appears at the age of seven to eight weeks, more distinctly at 10-12 weeks, when the baby begins to turn his head toward the sound stimulus. After some time the same reaction occurs on a sounding toy . A child at the age of three months quickly and accurately turns head to the sound source, at the age of five to six months quickly turns his head to the sound source only when his attention is not diverted by other, stronger stimuli. If at this point he is not engaged in antoy, he does not communicate with adults. Otherwise, the child may not show reaction to sound, or respond to it after a long latent period. This indicates not a decrease in the level auditory perception, and the development of the function of active attention . At the age of 8-10 weeks the child turns to the source of sound, located over his head, and by three months localizes the sound of any direction not only in the prone position, but also in the vertical position on the hands of an adult.
The absence of auditory responses, their asymmetry, excessive the duration of the latent period may indicate a decrease in hearing. A prerequisite for the creation of systematic assistance is the identification of children with hearing impairment from the children of the group "High risk". The scientists (N.M. Voronov, A.V. Mazurin, D.A. Khodov, S.S. Shamsiev, N.P. Shabalov, L.V. Erman,) is referred to the group "High risk" of children whose mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the primary postpartum period had risk factors for the fetus and child . "Risk" scientists consider factors that affect the fetus or a newborn child so that he is various sensory disturbances, including hearing impairment (N.P. Shabalov). Special examination of high risk children shows that the absence or weakness of reactions to sound the stimuli are most often due to a decrease in hearing, while the uneven response to sounds located on different sides, may be due to the peculiarities of adult behavior. In assessing auditory function in a child of three to six months should be reversed attention to the ability to localize sound in space, to selectivity and differentiation of reaction (M.P Denisova, A.G. Moskovkin, N.L. Figurine, E.M. Mastyukova and others). In children with hearing impairment, reactions to sound may be absent or manifest only on more loud sounds or not to manifest at all. A feature of the child's brain is that even a small defeat does not remain partial, but negatively affects all the maturation of the central nervous system. Therefore, a child with hearing impairment in the absence of early corrective measures will lag behind in mental development (L.A Wenger, T.A. Vygodskaya, E.I. Leonhard, E.M. Mastyukova, I.M. Solov'eva, Т.V. Rozanova, J.I. Shif).
Scientists say that children with hearing impairments are disrupted development of understanding of speech, formation of vocabulary, development of coherent speech. Secondary violations in development affect, before in total, those functions that intensively develop at an early age (speech, fine differentiated motor skills, spatial representations, arbitrary regulation of activity). An important role in the occurrence of secondary deviations in development plays deficiency or absence of early treatment-corrective and correctional and pedagogical measures.
Undetected abnormalities, such as hearing impairment, delay the rate of development of the child, contribute to the formation of emotional and personal deviations, consider the above authors.
Information about the characteristics of the development of children in the first months, have hearing impairment, there is a special literature, however are inadequate. In the faculty of pedagogy, the problems of early children age, with hearing impairment, were considered mainly with medical and physiological points of view (G.P. Bertyn, L.V. Neiman, M.S. Pevsner and others).
Psychological and pedagogical aspects of this problem began to be considered by scientists relatively. Recently, since the attention of the faculty of verdicts has been addressed to deaf children over three years old (E.I. Andreeva, I.G.Bagrov, N.I. Belova, V.I. Beltyukov, R.M. Boskis, L.S. Vygotsky, K.A.Volkova, A.I. Diachkov, S.A. Zykov, B.D. Korsunskaya, E.I. Leonhard, F.F.Rau, F.A. Rau, N.F. Slezin, I.M. Soloviev, Т.V. Rozanova, J.I. Shif) . On the need to develop and educate deaf children younger preschool and early age in the middle of this century. The authors undertook attempts to educate several groups of children with hearing impairment on the base of special pre-school groups created by N.A. Rau and E.F. Rau. Have of these authors, we find recommendations for the education and development of children of this age group.
The issues of teaching the language of deaf children of the preschool age, diagnosis and correction of hearing in children of the first three years of life are devoted to the research of a number of scientists – employees of research institutes correctional pedagogy led by L.P. Noskovoy, N.D. Shmatko, Т.V. Pelymskaya.
In the special literature of the literature methodical recommendations for the training of deaf babies perception and understanding of speech, the development of their communication with others (L.A. Golovchits, E.V. Kozhevnikova, L.P. Noskova, T.V. Pelymskaya, N.D. Shmatko). The authors describe in detail the specifics of classes, determine the direction of pedagogical correction, recommend lessons on the development of movements of a deaf child of an early age, pointing to the lag in the development of the movements of the children of this group from development of normally hearing children of the same age. Separately methodological recommendations for the development of visual orientations of young children with hearing impairment. The authors devote most of the recommendations to the development of communication deaf babies and the interaction of these children with others adults.
Scientists A.A. Wenger, G.L. Vygodskaya, E.I. Leonhard in the 70 years conducted research on the psychomotor development of children of early and preschool age with hearing impairment. Authors pay attention to the difference in the development of deaf children of an early age from the development of those hearing the same age, and also describe some the speech development of deaf children of an early age. In particular, they indicate a break in the walking phase and absence phases of babbling, for the presence of a large number of diverse voice reactions, to the extinction of vocal reactions without special occupations, the increased attention of deaf babies to the lips speaking adults.
In the literature we find detailed recommendations for creating centers of early intervention. The authors give a detailed introduction to the present the problem of baby habilitation, devote a lot of material a story about similar centers abroad. At the same we find data on the contingent of children in need of habilitation, the proposals on the possible structure of the habilitation center, proposals for the establishment of associations or clubs of parents, helping families unite with children with development. The importance and urgency of creating district centers for early intervention, including for children with hearing impairments, examples of children group.